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- 1 Extent and Boundaries of Project
- 2 Overview
- 3 List of Major A-N Families, with Researchers, Curators and Links
- 4 "To Do" list! Families and Profiles in Need of Cleanup and Merging
- 5 Project Members and their Interests
- 6 Curators and their Areas
- 7 Historical Sources for Medieval A-N Families
- 8 Naming Conventions for Medieval A-N Families
- 9 Notes
Extent and Boundaries of Project
We will begin our project with the generation that came from Normandy (France) to Britain in 1066 with William the Conqueror (Guillaume I, Duke of Normandy and King of England). Many of these men fought at the Battle of Hastings alongside King William and were rewarded for their loyalty with baronages and large tracts of land in the conquered country. In this way, these families became the nobility of Norman England for the next several centuries. They were listed in the Domesday Book, the great survey of land and material wealth carried out in 1086.
These first few generations of Anglo Norman knights were also among the crusaders of the First Crusade in the late 11th century on their mission to capture Jerusalem. The 11th century was an eventful time of great change in the lifestyles and cultural experiences of members of these families.
Some, but not all of them, were titled nobility in Normandy and retained their holdings there as well; others were poorer men, who rose to power through their military or political service, and women, who gained power through their alliances and marriages into powerful families. Some anglicized their names over time, while others retained the French spellings and geographically-based surnames referring to their ancestral villages in Normandy.
Members of this project will find information related to the following projects useful:
Viking and Nordic Ancestry Merge and Norman Ancestry Merge for the ancestors of the Anglo-Normans, and perhaps Anglo Saxon Kings Merge for some of the families already in England with whom the Anglo-Normans intermarried.
A good encyclopedia overview of the Anglo-Normans may be found on Wikipedia, from which we include a few excerpts here:
The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the Norman conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. A small number of Normans were already settled in England prior to the conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the invading Normans and their descendants formed a distinct population in Britain, as Normans controlled all of England, parts of Wales (the Cambro-Normans) and, after 1169, vast swaths of Ireland (the Hiberno-Normans). Over time their language evolved from the continental Old Norman to the distinct Anglo-Norman language (an Old French dialect)....
The Normans were not a homogeneous group springing exclusively from Viking stock, as has often been commonly and erroneously suggested, but rather one comprising a wide cross-section of north western and central French from Le Mans, Anjou, Brittany, and Poitiers, not to mention the contribution of Flanders. In terms of culture they represented the Gallo-Roman civilization as it had been absorbed and transformed by the Franks....
The Normans imposed a new political structure that is broadly termed "feudal" .... Many of the Anglo-Saxon nobles lost lands and titles; the lesser thegns and others found themselves lower down the social order than previously. ... Some of these Norman magnates used their original French-derived names, with the prefix 'de,' meaning they were lords of the old fiefs in France, and some instead dropped their French names and took their names from new English holdings.
...The England emerging from the Conquest owed a debt to the Romance languages and the culture of ancient Rome, which though long gone, transmitted itself in the emerging feudal world that took its place. That heritage can be discerned in language, incorporating shards of the Roman past, in architecture, in the emerging Romanesque (Norman) architecture, and in a new feudal structure erected as a bulwark against the chaos that overtook the Continent following the collapse of Roman authority and the subsequent Dark Ages. The England that emerged from the Conquest was a decidedly different place, but one that had been opened up to the sweep of outside influences.
...Anglo-Normans also led excursions into Wales from England and built multiple fortifications as it was one of William's ambitions to subdue the Welsh, however he was not entirely successful. Afterwards, however, the border area known as the Marches was set up and English influence increased steadily. Anglo-Norman barons also settled in Ireland from the 12th century, initially to support Irish regional kings.... Most of these Normans came from Wales, not England, and thus the epithet 'Cambro-Normans' is used to describe them by leading late medievalists....
List of Major A-N Families, with Researchers, Curators and Links
This is a beginning, mostly from the Wikipedia list. Please feel free to correct and/or add more. Please indicate the name of Geni researchers or curators working on each family, and bold these names that are being researched. If you would like to create a wiki subpage for a particular family name, with historical information and also other shared information about that particular family, please do so and link it to the name on this page. That is the best way for researchers to share information about the overall family that may be of help to Geni users.
- d'Anjou'''': Maria Edmonds-Zediker
- d'Aubigny (or Albini): Pam Wilson
- d'Avranches (le Goz)
- de Bailleul (or Balliol)
- de Bayeux: Pam Wilson
- de Beauchamp
- de Beaumont
- de Bellême
- le Bigod : Pam Wilson
- de Bohun : Pam Wilson
- de Bourg
- de Braose : Pam Wilson
- de Bruce or Brus
- de Carteret
- de Clare
- de Crépon : Anne Marit Berge
- de Courcy (or Courci)
- de Curzon
- de Dévereux
- de Melun/Carpenter
- de Marisco/Morris
- de Ferrers or Ferrières
- FitzOsbern (Giffard): Anne Marit Berge
- de Giroie
- de Gorges (or Görges)
- le Goz (d'Avranches)
- de Grandmesnil or Grentesmesnil
- de Harcourt
- de Lacy (or Lascy)
- de Limesy (or Limesi)
- de Longvillers
- de Lucy (or Luci)
- de Levett
- de Longchamp
- Malet or de Malet : Pam Wilson
- de Mandeville
- de Marren
- de Martin or Dammartin
- de Mauger/Mayor
- de Mayeux
- de Meschin or Meschines: Pam Wilson
- de Montfort
- de Montaigu or Montagu(e)
- de Mortimer
- de Montbray
- de Montgommery : Anne Marit Berge
- de Neville
- de Normandy
- de Osmondville/Osment
- Paganel (or Paynall)
- de Reviers
- de Saint-Clair
- de Senlis
- de Talbot
- de Tosny or Toni or Toeni : Pam Wilson
- de Umfraville
- de Verney
- de Vincent
- de Warenne or Warren
"To Do" list! Families and Profiles in Need of Cleanup and Merging
As you come across any Anglo-Norman profiles that are really a mess and in dire need of cleanup, please post a link here and also be sure to include the date you posted it. Once someone has "adopted" that line or profile, please come back and remove them from the list. Thanks!
Project Members and their Interests
Working in this area? Let us know! Please include your name and a link to your Geni profile below, and tell us which areas you are most involved with.
- Pam Wilson (Project Coordinator, Curator) For interests, see below.
Curators and their Areas
- Pam Wilson (Project Coordinator, Curator): Primary families I'm curating are d'Aubigny families of Arundel and Belvoir; de Bayeux (Earls of Chester, de Meschines); Malet; de Bohun (and on to Boone); de Braose; de Tosny/Toeni/Toni; Bigod; Lucy Thoroldsdottir and all of her family connections. I occasionally work on Percy, Mortimer, Grey, de Warenne, and others. If you have any information or corrections to add to Master Profiles that I am curating, even if they are locked, please do not feel excluded--I invite you to contact me and let's work together on building terrific profiles for these historical figures and ancestors.Sometimes it's necessary to lock problem profiles to keep them in order.
Curator: Primary families I'm curating: d'Anjou, de Gatinois (progenitors of Fulk line) from 800-1100 AD. Also known as the Angevin line.
Interested in: de Pecche/Peche and Peverel (many alternate spellings in both families). This is my husband's mother's ancient family. If no one else is interested in curating them, I would be happy to continue work on that line.
I will create master profiles and will lock only to prevent repeated bad merges. I welcome additional information and sources, just send me a message.
Historical Sources for Medieval A-N Families
Best-researched and preferred online database for medieval family relations: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Medieval Lands Database by Charles Cawley. Meticulously researched, with supporting evidence for all claims from primary sources, which are extensively quoted (usually in Latin). Please use this database as the most definitive guide for family relationships for the Anglo-Norman families, and please insert relevant information from this database into all Master Profiles as you are developing the "About Me"" sections.
You are encouraged to transcribe and/or share relevant materials from scholarly medieval history books and articles (always providing full source citations). Be aware that many of these are now accessible online. Please see bibliographies below for ideas and for your reading pleasure if you'd like to learn more about this period in history. (Please add to it if you know of books and articles about the Normans.)
(Please insert in alphabetical order by last name of author, and provide URL link if available online)
- Barlow, Frank. The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042-1216. London and New York: Longman, 1955-99 (5 editions).
- Bates, David and Anne Curry, eds. England and Normandy in the Middle Ages. London: 1994.
- Chibnall, Marjorie. Anglo-Norman England 1066-1166. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986.
- -------. The Debate on the Norman Conquest. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.
- Clanchy, M.T. England and Its Rulers 1066-1272, 2nd. ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
- -------.From Memory to Written Record 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
- Crane, Susan. "Anglo-Norman Cultures." In The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature, ed. David Wallace, 35-60. Cambridge, 1999
- -------. Insular Romance: Politics, Faith, and Culture in Anglo-Norman and Middle English Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
- Crouch, David. The Normans: The History of a Dynasty. Hambledon & London, 2002.
- Davis, Henry William & Robert J. Shotwell, eds. Regesta Regum Anglo Normannorum, 1066-1154. 4v. Clarendon Press, 1913 (AMS Press, 1987)
- Douglas, David C., The Normans, Folio Society, London, 2002.
- Edson, Evelyn. Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World. London: British Library, 1999.
- Field, Rosalind. "Romance in England, 1066-1400," in The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature, ed. David Wallace, 152-76. Cambridge, 1999.
- Frankis, P. John. "The Social Context of Vernacular Writing in the Thirteenth Century: The Evidence of the Manuscripts," Thirteenth Century England I, 175-84.
- Galloway, Andrew. "Writing History in England," in The Cambridge History of Medieval Literature, ed. David Wallace, 255-83 (Cambridge, 1999)
- Georgianna, Linda. "Coming to Terms with the Norman Conquest: Nationalism and English Literary History," Yearbook of Research in English and American Literature 14, Literature and the Nation, ed. Brook Thomas, 33-53 (Tübingen, 1998)
- Gillingham, John. "The Context and Purposes of Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain," ANS 13 (1990): 99-118
- Hastings, Adrian. The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion, and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Higham, N.J. The Norman Conquest. Sutton Pocket Histories. Phoenix Mill (UK), 1995.
- Jeffrey, David L. and Brian J. Levy, ed. and trans. The Anglo-Norman Lyric: An Anthology. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1990.
- Johnson, Lesley. "Imagining Communities: Medieval and Modern." In Concepts of National Identity in the Middle Ages, ed. Simon Forde and Lesley Johnson. Leeds, 1995. Pp 1-20.
- Laurent, Françoise. Plaire et édifier: Les récits hagiographiques composés en Angleterre aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles. Paris: Champion, 1998.
- Lewis, C.P. "The French in England before the Norman Conquest," ANS 17 (1994): 123-39.
- Loyd, Lewis C. The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families. (Harleian Society Publications, vol. 103) The Society, 1951 (Genealogical Publishing Co., 1980).
- Nicholls, Jonathan. The Matter of Courtesy: Medieval Courtesy Books and the Gawain-Poet. Woodbridge: Brewer, 1985.
- Otter, Monika. Inventiones: Fiction and Referentiality in Twelfth-Century English Historical Writing. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
- Partner, Nancy. Serious Entertainments: The Writing of History in Twelfth-Century England. Chicago and London: 1977.
- Rollo, David. Historical Fabrication, Ethic Fable, and French Romance in Twelfth-Century England, Edward C. Armstrong Monographs on Medieval Literature 9. Lexington: French Forum Publishers, 1998.
- Shopkow, Leah. History and Community: Norman Historical Writing in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1997.
- Short, Ian. "Patrons and Polyglots: French Literature in Twelfth-Century England," ANS 14 (1991): 229-49
- Spiegel, Gabrielle. Romancing the Past: The Rise of Vernacular Prose Historiography in Thirteenth-Century France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
- -------."Pseudo-Turpin, The Crisis of the Aristocracy, and the Beginnings of Vernacular Historiography in France," Journal of Medieval History 12 (1986): 207-23.
- Stafford, Pauline. "Women and the Norman Conquest," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., vol. 4 (1994): 221-49.
- -------.Queen Emma and Queen Edith: Queenship and Women’s Power in Eleventh-Century England. Oxford and Malden, Mass., 1997.
- van Houts, Elizabeth. The Normans in Europe. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.
- Walker, David. The Normans in Britain. Oxford and Cambridge, Mass., 1995.
- Warren, Michelle R. History on the Edge: Excalibur and the Borders of Britain, 1100-1300. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.
- Bates, David. "Notes sur l'aristocratie normande: Hugues, évêque de Bayeux (1011 env. - 1049) et Herluin de Conteville et sa famille." AN 23 (1973): 7-38.
- Douglas, David C. "Companions of the Conqueror." History 28 (1943): 129-147.
- Green, Judith A. "King Henry I and the Aristocracy of Normandy." La "France anglaise" au Moyen Age: Colloque des historiens médiévistes français et britanniques, 161-173. Actes du congrès national des sociétés savantes, section d'histoire médiévale et de philologie, 111:1. Paris: Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, 1988.
- Green, Judith A. "Lords of the Norman Vexin." War and Government in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of J. O. Prestwich, 47-61. Editors John Gillingham and J. C. Holt. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1984.
- Hollister, C. Warren. "The Aristocracy." The Anarchy of Stephen's Reign, 37-66. Editor Edmund King. Oxford: OUP, 1994.
- Hollister, C. Warren. "The Greater Domesday Tenants-in-Chief." Domesday Studies, 219-248. Editor J. C. Holt. London: Hambledon Press, 1987.
- Houts, Elisabeth M. C. van. "The Ship List of William the Conqueror." ANS 10 (1987): 159-184.
- Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. "Two studies in North French Prosopography." JMH 20 (1994): 3-37.
- Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. "William I and the Breton Contingent in the Non-Norman Conquest, 1060-1087." ANS 13 (1990): 157-172.
- Le Patourel, John. Norman Barons, Historical Association Pamphlet, 1066 Commemoration Series, 4. Hastings and Bexhill: Historical Association, 1966.
- Loyd, Lewis C. The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families, Publications of the Harleian Society, 103. Leeds: The Harleian Society, 1951.
- Musset, Lucien. "La formation d'un milieu social original: Les chapelains normands du duc-roi au XIe et au début du XIIe siècle." Aspects de la société et l'économie dans la Normandie médiévale, Xe-XIIIe siècles, 91-114. Cahier des AN 22. Caen: AN, 1988.
- Potts, Cassandra. "Les ducs normands et leurs nobles." Études Normandes 35, no. 3 (1986): 29-38.
Books and Articles on Specific Anglo-Norman Families
Alnou: Bouvris, Jean-Michel. "Les seigneurs d'Anou[-le-Faucon], près d'Argentan: Une famille de barons de la Normandie moyen au XIe siècle." Le Pays bas-normand 80, no. 189 (1988): 29-45.
Beaumont/Meulan: Crouch, David. The Beaumont Twins: The Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, Fourth Series, 1. Cambridge: CUP, 1986.
Houth, Émile. "Géographie des fiefs des comtes de Meulan." Bulletin philologique et historique (jusqu'à 1610) du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques (1966): 561-565.
King, Edmund. "Waleran, Count of Meulan, Earl of Worcester." Tradition and Change: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Chibnall on Her Seventieth Birthday, 165-181. Editors Diane Greenway, Christopher Holdsworth and Jane Sayers. Cambridge: CUP, 1985.
White, Geoffrey H. "The Career of Waleran, Count of Meulan and Earl of Worcester (1104-66)." TRHS 4th Series, no. 17 (1934): 19-48.
Bellême: Boussard, Jacques. "La seigneurie de Bellême aux Xe et XIe siècles." In Mélanges d'histoire du Moyen Age Louis Halphen, edited by Charles-Edmond Perrin, 43-54. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1951.
Louise, Gérard. La Seigneurie de Bellême, Xe-XIIe siècles: Dévolution des pouvoirs territoriaux et construction d'une seigneurie de frontière aux confins de la Normandie et du Maine à la charnière de l'an Mil, Le Pays Bas-Normand, 199-202. Rouen: Le Pays Bas-Normand, 1990.
Musset, Lucien. "Administration et justice dans une grande baronnie normande au XIe siècle: Les terres des Bellême sous Roger II et Robert." APDN, 129-148. Cahier des AN, 17. Caen: AN, 1985.
Thompson, Kathleen. "Family and Influence to the South of Normandy in the Eleventh Century: the Lordship of Bellême." JMH 11 (1985): 215-226.
Thompson, Kathleen. "Robert of Bellême Reconsidered." ANS 13 (1990): 263-286.
Thompson, Kathleen. "William Talvas, Count of Ponthieu, and the Politics of the Anglo-Norman Realm." England and Normandy in the Middle Ages, 169-184. Editors David Bates and Anne Curry. London: Hambledon Press, 1994.
White, Geoffrey H. "The First House of Bellême." TRHS 4th Series, no. 22 (1940): 67-99.
White, Geoffrey H. "The Lords of Bellême and Alençon." Notes and Queries 152 (1927): 399-401, 417-419, 435-438.
Bessin (viscounts): Bouvris, Jean-Michel. "Les fiefs d'une famille vicomtale à l'époque ducale: Les vicomtes du Bessin (XIe-XIIe siècles)." Memoire de Maîtrise, Université de Caen, 1973.
Bohun: Le Melletier, Jean. Les seigneurs de Bohon, illustre famille anglo-normande originaire du Cotentin. Coutances: Arnaud-Bellée, 1978.
Broc: Bouvris, Jean-Michel. "Une famille de vassaux des vicomtes de Bayeux au XIe siècle: Les Broc." Revue du Département de la Manche 19, no. 73 (1977): 3-45.
Dastin: Bouvris, Jean-Michel. "Pour un étude prosopographique des familles nobles d'importance moyenne en Normandie au XIe siècle: L'exemple du lignage des Dastin." Revue de l'Avranchin 41 (1984): 65-101.
Fitz Osbern: Douglas, David C. "The Ancestors of William fitz Osbern." EHR 59 (1944): 62-79.
Girois/Géré: Bauduin, Pierre. "Une famille châtelaine sur les confins normanno-manceaux: Les Géré (Xe-XIIIe siècle)." Archéologie médiévale 22 (1992): 309-356.
Maillefer, Jean-Marie. "Une famille aristocratique aux confines de la Normandie: Les Géré au XIe siècle." APDN, 175-206. Cahier des AN, 17. Caen: AN, 1985.
Grandmesnil: Decaëns, Joseph. "Le patrimoine des Grentemesnil en Normandie, en Angleterre et en Italie aux XIe et XIIe siècles." In Méditerranée 123-40.
Walker, Barbara McDonald. "The Grandmesnils: A Study in Norman Baronial Enterprise." Ph.D. diss., UCSB, 1968.
Lacy: Wightman, Wilfrid Eric. "La famille de Lacy et ses terres normandes." AN 11 (1961): 267-277.
Wightman, Wilfrid Eric. The Lacy Family in England and Normandy, 1066-1194. Oxford: OUP, 1966.
Laigle: Thompson, Kathleen. "The Lords of Laigle: Ambition and Insecurity on the Borders of Normandy." ANS 18 (1995): 177-199.
Montgomery: Chandler, Victoria. "The Last of the Montgomerys: Roger the Poitevin and Arnulf." Historical Research 62 (1989): 1-14.
Mason, J. F. A. "Roger de Montgomery and His Sons (1067-1102)." TRHS 5th Series, no. 13 (1963).
Thompson, Kathleen. "Arnoul de Montgommery." AN 45 (1995): 49-53.
Thompson, Kathleen. "The Norman Aristocracy before 1066: The Example of the Montgomerys." Historical Research 60 (1987): 251-263.
Mortain: Boussard, Jacques. "Le comté de Mortain au XIe siècle." MA 58 (1952): 253-279.
Golding, Brian. "Robert of Mortain." ANS 13 (1990): 119-144.
Musset, Lucien. "Autour les origines de Mortain, de son comté et de ses églises (XIe siècle)." Annuaire des cinq départements de la Normandie 146 (1988): 99-102.
Potts, Cassandra. "The Earliest Norman Counts Revisited: The Lords of Mortain." HSJ 4 (1992): 23-36.
Moulins-la-Marche: Tabuteau, Emily Zack. "The Family of Moulins-la-Marche in the Eleventh Century." Medieval Prosopography 13, no. 1 (1992): 29-66.
Perche: Nelson, Lynn H. "Rotrou of Perche and the Aragonese Reconquest." Traditio 26 (1970): 113-34.
Œillet des Murs, Marc. Histoire des comtes du Perche de la famille des Rotrou, de 943 à 1231. Nogent-le-Rotrou: Imprimerie de A. Gouverneur, 1856.
Siguret, Philippe. "Recherches sur la formation du comté du Perche, deuxième partie." Bulletin principal de la Société historique et archéologique du l'Orne 80 (1962): 3-42.
Thompson, Kathleen. "Family Tradition and the Crusading Impulse: The Rotrou Counts of the Perche." Medieval Prosopography 19 (1998): 1-34.
Thompson, Kathleen. "The Formation of the County of Perche: The Rise and Fall of the House of Gouet." Family Trees and the Roots of Politics: The Prospography of Britain and France from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century, 299-314. Editor K. S. B. Keats- Rohan. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997.
Réviers/Redvers: Hockey, Frederick. "The House of Redvers and its Monastic Foundations." ANS 5 (1982): 146-152.
Rollonids (non-ruling): Depoin, Joseph. "L'origine d'Arlette, mère de Guillaume le Conquérant." Congrès du millénaire de la Normandie (911-1911). Comte rendu des travaux, 1:305-309. Rouen: Léon Gy, 1912.
Houts, Elisabeth M. C. van. "The Origins of Herleva, Mother of William the Conqueror." EHR 101 (1986): 399-404.
Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. "Poppa of Bayeux and Her Family." The American Genealogist 72 (1997): 187-204.
LoPrete, Kimberly A. "The Anglo-Norman Card of Adela of Blois." Albion 22 (1990): 569-89.
Stasser, Thierry. "Mathilde, fille du comte Richard: Essai d'identification." AN 40 (1990): 49-64.
White, Geoffrey H. "The Sisters and Nieces of Gunnor, Duchess of Normandy." The Genealogist 37 (1921): 57-65, 128-132.
Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte: Delisle, Léopold. Histoire du château et des sires de Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte. Paris: Aug. Durande, 1867.
Saint-Valèry: Fowler, G. Herbert. "De St. Walery." The Genealogist N.S. 30: 1-17.
Tosny: Musset, Lucien. "Aux origines d'une classe dirigeante: Les Tosny, grands barons normands du Xe au XIIIe siècle." Francia 5 (1977): 45-80.
Warenne: Loyd, Lewis C. "The Origin of the Family of Warenne." Yorkshire Archeological Society Journal 31 (1934).
Journals and Series
- Anglo-Norman Studies: Proceedings of the Battle Abbey Conferences. The year cited in the title of individual volumes is not usually the year of publication; special care is needed in referring to this fundamental journal.
- Haskins Society Journal: High-quality source of historical articles in the period.
- Medium Aevum. Primarily literary. Middle English, French, and other languages.
- Modern Language Review
- Romania: The journal where most texts in the French of England were first published in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Continues to publish valuable editions of shorter texts.
- Thirteenth-Century England. Well-respected annually published series.
- The Year's Work in Modern Language Studies: Reviews of all new work in the subject; very well-organized.